Birds 鸟

Accipitridae 鹰科

Brahminy Kite 栗鸢 Helang-Tembikar Merah

Scientific Name: Haliastur indus
Photo’s location: Changi Beach Park 樟宜海滨公园
Size: 44-52 cm
Adult superficially resembles the globally famous Bald Eagle with bright rufous underparts, with white head and belly. Juveniles have variably brownish underparts depending on age. In flight easily identified by their “m” shaped wings when soaring. The similar looking Black Kite has a distinct square cut tail and a distinct small white flash on the base of the primary coverts.
Habitat: Coastal areas.
Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds on fish but also a scavenger. Has a rather funny sounding call, sounding like a whining baby.

White-bellied sea eagle vs Brahminy Kite

White-bellied Sea Eagle 白腹海雕 Helang-Laut Putih

Scientific Name: Haliaeetus leucogaster
Photo’s location: Changi Beach Park 樟宜海滨公园
Size: 70-85 cm
Adults have all white underparts with black flight feathers, sub-adults variably greyish-brown underparts depending on age. Easily identified in flight when the wings are lifted upwards to form a shallow “v” when soaring. Sub-adults distinguished from the Grey-headed Fish Eagle by having a uniformly brown to white underparts, as opposed to having a contrasting white vent and undertail coverts.
Habitat: Coastal areas and inland waterbodies.
Behaviour/Ecology: Heaviest resident bird in Singapore. Feeds primarily on fish. Has a spectacular aerial display where two birds will cling on to each other in the air with their feet and somersault downwards, letting go before they hit the ground. Loud honking call sounds almost like a duck.

Acrocephalidae 苇莺科

Oriental Reed Warbler 东方大苇莺 Cekup-Paya Besar Biasa

Scientific Name: Acrocephalus orientalis
Photo’s location: Gardens by the Bay 滨海湾花园
Size: 18-20 cm
Adult has prominent whitish supercilium, warm olive-brown upperparts and whitish underparts with warm buffish wash on flanks.
Habitat: Reedbeds, scrubs and wet grasslands.
Behaviour/Ecology: Skulks in thick vegetation.

Aegithinidae Iora 雀鹎科

Common iora 黑翅雀鹎 Kunyit-Kecil Biasa

Scientific Name: Aegithina tiphia
Photo’s location: Seletar Aerospace Park 实里达航空园
Size: 12-14.5 cm
Breeding plumage in male; black cap, wings and tail. Underparts lemon-yellow. Two striking white wing bars present. Upperparts generally black but flecked with some yellow. Female plumage lacks black cap and upperparts of breeding male and is instead yellowish green in these areas, underparts lemon-yellow, wings black with white edging to feathers. Non-breeding males are similar to females apart from more black on wings and retaining the black on uppertail coverts and tail.
Habitat: Favour open wooded habitat. Seen in most parks, not seen in closed forest.
Behaviour/Ecology: Prefers foraging for insects at higher levels of the canopy, often seen search on the undersides of leaves for prey

Alcedinidae Kingfisher 翠鳥科

Collared Kingfisher 白领翡翠 Pekaka Bakau Biasa

Scientific Name: Todiramphus chloris
Photo’s location: Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve 双溪布洛湿地保护区
Size: 24-26 cm
Adult has rich blue upperparts, distinctive white collar and underparts and black bill with pale pinkish-white lower mandible. Juvenile resembles adult but has duller/greener-tinged upperparts and dark vermiculations on collar and breast.
Habitat: Waterbodies in or near forests edge, parks, gardens, open woodlands, grasslands and mangroves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds on fish, lizards, insects, and small amphibians.

Common Kingfisher 普通翠鸟 Rajaudang Cicit

Scientific Name: Alcedo atthis
Photo’s location: Seletar Country Club 实里达高尔夫球俱乐部
Size: 16-18 cm
Male has pale rufous underparts with a white-tinged throat, rufous ear-coverts, turquoise blue upperparts and mostly black bill. Female resembles male but base or most of lower mandible orange-reddish. Juvenile has duller underparts with dusky wash across breast.
Habitat: Various inland and coastal wetlands.
Behaviour/Ecology: Diet consists mostly of fish but occasionally hunts for lizard, frog and insects.

Stork-billed Kingfisher 鹳嘴翡翠 Pekaka-Emas Biasa

Scientific Name: Pelargopsis capensis
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 37.5-41 cm
Adult has huge red bill, dull brownish crown and headsides, greenish-blue mantle, wings and tail and mostly warm buff-orange nuchal collar and underparts.
Habitat: Waterbodies in or near forests, parks, gardens, open woodlands and mangroves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Catches medium size fishes by plunging into the water from perches around 2-4 meters above the water.

White-throated Kingfisher 白胸翡翠 Pekaka Rengkung Putih

Scientific Name: Halcyon smyrnensis
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 27.5-29.5 cm
Adult has dark chestnut head, flanks and belly with contrasting whitish throat and centre of breast, mostly turquoise-blue mantle, wings and tail, dark chestnut/blackish wing-coverts and reddish bill. Juvenile has duller upperparts, browner bill and dark vermiculations on throat and breast.
Habitat: Parks, gardens and wooded areas near open grass patches, water-bodies, canals, rivers and mangroves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds on fish, lizards, insects and small amphibians.

Anatidae Ducks 鸭科

Mandarin duck鸳鸯 itik mandarin

Scientific Name: Aix galericulata
Photo’s location: Hougang 后港
Size: 41–49 cm long
The male mandarin duck is the most gorgeous duck. The neck has a crest composed of green, white and maroon, the chest and abdomen are pure white; the back is light brown, and there are 2 white stripes on both sides of the shoulders; the innermost two tertiary flight feathers are expanded into a fan shape and are erected on both sides of the back, very striking, the female is pale brown on the back and pure white on the belly. The male mandarin duck coverts are similar to the female mandarin duck, and the chest has a pink dot. Eyes brown, with yellowish-white rings on the periphery, reddish-brown mouth. Feet and toes reddish-yellow, webbed black.
Habitat: They inhabit inland lakes and rivers in the foothills, and usually live in pairs without separation.
Behaviour/Ecology: Mainly plant food, but also eat insects and other small animals.

Swan 天鵝 Burung Angsa

Scientific Name: Cygnus
Photo’s location: Singapore Botanic Gardens 新加坡植物园
Size: 16-16.5 cm
All swans are huge birds, and any difference in size would only be apparent if the two species were right next to each other.

Apodidae / Swifts 雨燕科

Pacific Swift 白腰雨燕 Layang-layang Sabit Asia Timur
Scientific Name: Apus pacificus
Photo’s location: Pontian Johor Malaysia
Size: 18-19.5 cm
Identification: Brownish upperpart plumage, long sickle-shaped wings and sharply forked tail separate it from House Swift. Distinguished from the similar looking Asian Palm Swift by its larger size, whitish throat and diagnostic white-rump band.
Habitat: Open habitat and forested areas.
Eating behaviour: Feed on small insects eggs. bees, wasps, termites, moths and flies taken in flight.


Ardeidae Herons 鹭科

Black-crowned Night Heron 夜鹭 Pucung-Kuak Biasa
Scientific Name: Nycticorax nycticorax
Photo’s location: Berlayer Creek Boardwalk
Size: 58-65 cm
Identification: Non-breeding adult has greyish-white overall plumage with contrasting black crown, mantle and scapulars, yellow legs/feet, whitish nape-plumes and mostly blackish bill. Breeding adult has glossed bluish-green mantle/scapulars and reddish legs. Juvenile is duller brown overall with white-spotted upperparts and streaked crown, head-sides and underparts.
Habitat: Marshes, mangroves and waterbodies near parks/gardens.
Eating behaviour: Diet quite variable; mostly fish, but also squid, crustaceans, aquatic insects, frogs, snakes, clams, mussels, rodents, carrion. Sometimes specializes on eggs and young birds, and can cause problems in tern colonies.


Great-billed Heron 大嘴鹭 Pucung Seriap Lembu

Scientific Name: Ardea sumatrana
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 114-115 cm
Non-breeding adult resembles a large and long-necked heron with dusky grey overall plumage and long stout dagger shaped bill. Adult in breeding plumage has distinct white-tipped greyish plumes on scapulars and breast. Plumage of juvenile appears warmer-tinged than non-breeding adult.
Habitat: Mudflats and other coastal habitats.
Behaviour/Ecology: Usually solitary, stalking prey at the edge of mudflats or estuaries.

Great Egret 大白鹭 Bangau Besar

Scientific Name: Ardea alba
Photo’s location: Taman Jurong
Size: 85-102 cm
Plumage of non-breeding adult is all white with heavy yellow bill and black legs. Breeding adult has red legs and black bill. Distinguished from other white Egret species by longer and strongly kinked neck and pointed extension of facial skin (gape line) which extends beyond eye. Juvenile resembles non-breeding adult.
Habitat: Various inland and coastal wetlands, mangroves and mudflats.
Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds on mostly fish, but will also take amphibians (frogs), aquatic invertebrates (insects, crayfish), and reptiles (snakes).

Grey Heron 苍鹭 Pucung Seriap Biasa

Scientific Name: Ardea cinerea
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 90-98 cm
Non-breeding adult has grey upperparts, mostly white head and neck with prominent broad black head-stripes and blackish streaks down centre of foreneck, black nape-plumes, whitish underparts, black shoulder-patch and dull yellowish bill. Breeding adult has bright orange-yellow bill, legs and feet. Juvenile resembles non-breeding adult but is duller and has less contrasting head and neck pattern and much shorter head-plumes.
Habitat: Mangroves and various inland and coastal wetlands.
Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds on large fish.

Little Egret 白鹭 Bangau Kecil

Scientific Name: Egretta garzetta
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 55-65 cm
Non-breeding adult shows all-white plumage, black legs (with yellow feet for garzetta) and mostly blackish bill. In transition to breeding plumage, has white plumes behind head. Juvenile resembles non-breeding adult but has greenish legs.
Habitat: Various freshwater and coastal wetlands.
Behaviour/Ecology: Less active feeder than Chinese Egret.

Purple heron 草鹭 Pucung Serandau

Scientific Name: Ardea purpurea
Photo’s location: Kallang River 加冷河
Size: 78-90 cm
Adult has black crown, black nape-plumes, rufous-chestnut neck with bold black lines down head-sides and neck, dark chestnut-maroon belly/flanks/vent/underwing-coverts, greyish upperparts and mostly yellowish-orange bill/legs/feet. Juvenile resembles adult but has brownish-orange overall plumage and lacks the bold black lines down head-sides/neck.
Habitat: Well-vegetated freshwater wetlands, marshes, lakes and occasionally coastal wetlands and mangroves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Often stays hidden in reedbeds or dense vegetation for long periods of time.

Striated Heron 绿鹭 Pucung-Bakau Biasa

Scientific Name: Butorides striata
Alternative Name(s): Little Heron
Photo’s location: Kallang River 加冷河
Size: 40-48 cm
Adult has mostly slaty grey plumage with blackish crown and long black nape-plumes, blackish bill with yellow base at lower mandible and yellowish-orange legs. Juvenile resembles Black-crowned Night Heron but has darker brown overall plumage, dark brownish crown and longer and slimmer bill.
Habitat: Marshes, mangroves, waterbodies near parks/gardens and coastal areas.

Yellow Bittern 黄苇鳽 Gelam Kuning

Scientific Name: Ixobrychus sinensis
Photo’s location: Gardens by the Bay 滨海湾花园
Size: 36-38 cm
Male has blackish crown and uppertail-coverts, pale brownish mantle, yellowish-buff underparts with light streaks down foreneck and upper breast and blackish flight feathers that contrast sharply with pale buff wing coverts. Female resembles male but has reddish brown crown. Juvenile resembles female but has bolder streaks on crown, upperparts and underparts.
Habitat: Grasslands and marshes near freshwater wetlands, well-vegetated ponds and mangroves.
Eating behaviour: Mainly feed at the edge of water-bodies and waterways, fishing for fish, tadpoles and invertebrates.

Bucerotidae Hornbill 犀鸟科

Oriental Pied Hornbill 冠斑犀鸟 Kelingking Biasa

Scientific Name: Anthracoceros albirostris
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 68-70 cm
A medium-sized hornbill with white belly and trailing edge to wings. Upperparts and wings dark. Pale yellow bill with black tipped casque. Female has smaller casque than male with black on bill tip. Juvenile less glossy plumage, smaller casque and all yellow bill.
Habitat: Wooded areas, forest edges, gardens and parks.
Behaviour/Ecology: Large, conspicuous hornbill. Found in most open vegetation on the island, often found in urban areas bordering green spaces.

Cacatuidae Cockatoos 凤头鹦鹉科

Tanimbar Corella 戈氏凤头鹦鹉 Kakaktua Tanimbar

Scientific Name: Cacatua goffiniana
Alternative Name(s): Tanimbar Cockatoo
Photo’s location: Changi Beach Park 樟宜海滩公园
Size: 32 cm
All white cockatoo with short crest and white eye ring. Grey legs and bill with light pink feathers around base of bill. Separated from Yellow-crested Cockatoo by lack of yellow crest and more compact build.
Habitat: Lightly wooded habitats in Singapore, although often found foraging away from forests, even around housing estates.
Eating behaviour: pong pong fruits, pods of the golden shower and starfruit.

Yellow-crested cockatoo 小葵花凤头鹦鹉 Kakatua-kecil Jambul-kuning

Scientific Name: Cacatua galerita
Photo’s location: Sentosa Butterfly Park & Insect Kingdom
Size: medium-sized (about 34-cm-long)
large white parrot. It has a dark grey-black bill, a distinctive sulphur-yellow crest and a yellow wash on the underside of the wings.
Habitat: forest, forest edge, scrub and cultivated areas from sea-level up to about 1500 meters.
Eating behaviour: grasses, roots and the nuts, fruits, berries of trees. even eat insects and their larva.

Ciconiidae Stork 鹳科

Painted Stork 彩鹳 Upih Sawah

Scientific Name: Mycteria leucocephala
Photo’s location: Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve 双溪布洛湿地保护区
Size: 93-102 cm
Only similar species recorded locally is Milky Stork, with which this species interbreeds extensively. Differentiated from Milky by three main traits, which must all be present in combination: a distinct and complete black breast-band with white barring (Milky has a clean white breast, while hybrids may show an indistinct or weak breastband); a clear pink flush on the tertials, inner secondaries, and wing-coverts; and black-and-white spotting on the upperwing-coverts (Milky has clean white upperwing-coverts). Individuals which lack any of these features cannot be identified as pure Painted Storks.
Habitat: Mangroves, mudflats, and coasts.
Eating behaviour: They immerse their half open beaks in water and sweep them from side to side and snap up their prey of small fish that are sensed by touch.

Cisticolidae 扇尾莺科

Ashy tailorbird 灰缝叶莺 Perenjak-Pisang Kelabu Biasa

Scientific Name: Orthotomus ruficeps
Photo’s location: Tampines Eco Green 淡滨尼生态公园
Size: 11-11.5 cm
Grey tailorbird with rufous forehead, crown, lores and eye area.
Habitat: Coastal forests, mangroves, but also secondary forests and gardens.
Behaviour/Ecology: Skulky, calls often.

Columbidae 鸠鸽科

Pink-Necked Green Pigeon 红颈绿鸠 Punai Kocok

Scientific Name: Treron vernans
Photo’s location: East Coast Park 东海岸
Size: 26.5-32 cm
Male has mostly green plumage with greyish head, pinkish nape, neck and upperbreast, orange central breast and dark chestnut undertail-coverts. Female lacks the pinkish and orange plumage of the male. Juvenile of both sexes resembles female but male will soon start to show patches of adult plumage.
Habitat: Forests, mangroves, wooded areas, gardens and parks.
Behaviour/Ecology: Arboreal, seldom come to the ground except to drink.


Rock Dove 原鸽 Merpati Biasa

Scientific Name: Columba livia
Alternative Name(s): Rock Pigeon, Common Pigeon
Photo’s location: Telok Blangah Crescent 直落布兰雅弯
Size: 33 cm
Adult is typically grey with noticeable darker hood and breast, blackish tail-tip and paler wing-coverts with two broad blackish bars. May also be highly variable with patches of white and brown in plumage and some are entirely blackish.
Habitat: Urban and open areas.
Behaviour/Ecology: Forages on the ground.

Spotted Dove 珠颈斑鸠 Tekukur Jerum Timur

Scientific Name: Spilopelia chinensis
Photo’s location: Bukit Merah (红山)
Size: 30-31 cm
Adult has greyish-brown upperparts with blackish streaks on upperwings, prominent black collar with white spots at back of neck, greyish face and pale vinous-pink underparts. Juvenile looks darker and has less obvious collar at back of neck.
Habitat: Open habitats like grasslands, reclaimed lands and urban areas.
Behaviour/Ecology: Forages mostly on the ground for grass seeds and grains.

Western crowned pigeon 蓝凤冠鸠 Merpati mahkota barat

Scientific Name: Goura cristata
also known as the common crowned pigeon or blue crowned pigeon
Photo’s location: Sentosa Butterfly Park & Insect Kingdom
Size: average 70 cm (28 in) long and weighs 2.1 kg 40-43 cm
is a large, blue-grey pigeon with blue lacy crests over the head and dark blue mask feathers around its eyes. Both sexes are almost similar but males are often larger than females.
Habitat: lowland rainforests.
Eating behaviour: The diet consists mainly of fruits and seeds

Zebra Dove 斑姬地鸠 Merbuk Biasa

Scientific Name: Geopelia striata
Photo’s location: Gardens by the Bay 滨海湾花园
Size: 21-21.5 cm
Adult has pale bluish-grey forehead and face with light blue orbital skin, brownish-grey upperparts with dark bars and pinkish underparts with black and white barrings at hindneck, sides of neck and flanks. Juvenile looks duller and has less contrasting bars on hindneck.
Habitat: Open habitats like grasslands, reclaimed lands and urban areas.
Eating behaviour: feed on open ground, pecking on ground surfaces to get small fallen seeds.

Coraciidae Rollers 佛法僧科

Oriental Dollarbird 三宝鸟 Tiung-Batu Biasa
Scientific Name: Eurystomus orientalis
Photos location: Pasir Ris Park, Hampstead Wetlands Park
Size: 27.5-31.5 cm
Identification: Distinct silhouette with a stout body and chunky head with red bill. Greyish to blackish plumage, glossed blue. In flight, long wings with white wing patches diagnostic. Often perches conspicuously uttering a ‘chak’ call.
Habitat: Frequents open areas
Eating behaviour: feeding on large flying insects such as beetles, bugs, moths, mantids, grasshoppers, crickets and cicadas

Corvidae Crow 鸦科

House Crow 家鸦 Gagak Rumah

Scientific Name: Corvus splendens
Photo’s location: Kallang River 加冷河
Size: 40-43 cm
Blackish plumage with greyish collar consisting of nape, mantle, neck and breast.
Habitat: Widespread, including urban areas, gardens, scrubland, mangroves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Noisy, roosts communally in large numbers.

Dicaeidae Flowerpecker 啄花鸟科

Orange-bellied Flowerpecker 橙腹啄花鸟 Sepah-Puteri Perut Jingga

Scientific Name: Dicaeum trigonostigma
Photo’s location: Coney Island Park 科尼岛公园
Size: 9 cm
Male is distinctive, and shows slaty-blue upperparts (crown/nape/wings/tail) except for a large triangular orange patch on the mantle. It has a fairly thin and short bill that is slightly curved downwards at the tip. Upper-breast and throat are a lighter greyish blue; from the lower breast to the vent is a gradient from fiery orange (on the lower breast) to yellow (on the vent). Female is much duller, and is mostly drab olive brown overall, except for its pale orange rump and yellow belly.
Habitat: Forested area and forest edge.
Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds on flowers and fruits.

Estrildidae 梅花雀科

Scaly-breasted Munia 斑文鸟 Ciak-Padi Pinang

Scientific Name: Lonchura punctulata
Photo’s location: Seletar Country Club 实里达高尔夫球俱乐部
Size: 12-12.5 cm
The introduced topela shows distinctive plumage pattern with brown upperparts contrasting with brownish scales on breast and flanks, chestnut-tinged head-sides and whitish centre of belly and vent. Local race fretensis has paler upperparts and bolder/blacker scaling below. Juvenile is duller and scales are either very faint or not visible.
Habitat: Urban areas as well as cultivated lands, grasslands, scrub, secondary growth.
Behaviour/Ecology: Highly gregarious and forages in small flocks, sometimes with other Munia species.

Hirundinidae Swallows 燕科

Pacific Swallow 洋斑燕 Layang-layang Biasa

Scientific Name: Hirundo tahitica
Photo’s location: Rower’s Bay Park and Yishun Dam 新加坡划船手湾公园与义顺水坝 Bukit Timah Nature Reserve 武吉知马天然保护区
Size: 13-14 cm
Forked tail with dark upperparts and dark blue gloss. Rufous forehead, throat, upper breast. Underparts grey.
Habitat: Found extensively throughout Singapore.
Eating behaviour: Foraging for a wide variety of aerial insects in broad swooping flight

Irenidae Bluebird 和平鸟科

Asian Fairy-bluebird 和平鸟 Murai-Gajah Biasa

Scientific Name: Irena puella
Photo’s location: Dairy Farm Nature Park 奶牛场自然公园
Size: 24.5-26.5 cm
Bulky and distinctive, male is mostly black with shinning deep blue upperparts and vent while female is duller turquoise-blue overall. Bright red irises are present in both genders.
Habitat: Forest and forest edge.
Behaviour/Ecology: Often observed feeding on fig trees with green-pigeons and migratory thrushes.


Laniidae Shrike 伯劳科

Long-tailed Shrike 棕背伯劳 Tirjup Ekor Panjang Asia

Scientific Name: Lanius schach
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 25-28 cm
Adults show variable amount of rich rufous on flanks and vent, have a thick black eyestripe, no supercilium (differentiating them from Brown Shrike), white throat, slaty grey crown and mantle and black bill, wings and tail. Juveniles are duller.
Habitat: Parks, grasslands and other open habitats with posts and fence-lines as look-out perches.
Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds on insects, lizards, small birds and mammals.

Tiger shrike 虎纹伯劳 Tirjup Harimau

Scientific Name: Lanius tigrinus
Photos location: Seletar Aerospace Park 实里达航空园
Size: 17-18.5 cm
Adult males (rare in Singapore) have white underparts, thick eyestripe, scaly chestnut lower back that contrasts strongly with slate-grey upper mantle, nape, and crown. Females like males but have scaly underparts and overall duller plumage. Immatures and juveniles are very scaly overall. Birds of all ages show a “clean”, unscaled and rufous tail.
Habitat: Well-wooded areas, secondary growth and forest edge.
Eating behaviour: Feeds on insects, lizards, small birds and rodents.

Meropidae Bee-eater 蜂虎科

Blue-tailed Bee-eater 栗喉蜂虎 Berek-berek Zaitun Asia

Scientific Name: Merops philippinus
Photo’s location: Hampstead Wetlands Park 翰士德湿地公园
Size: 23-24 cm
Adult quite distinctive and is green overall with orange-chestnut lower throat, black eyestripe that gets thinner closer to the bill and bluish rump/tail. Also shows the typical shape of a bee-eater — long and slightly downcurved bill with long tail-streamers. Juvenile has duller lower throat and lacks tail-streamers.
Habitat: Open and urban areas, marshes, grasslands and forests.
Eating behaviour: Feeds in flight on a variety of flying insects including dragonflies, bees and large flies.

Muscicapidae Flycatchers 鹟科

Oriental Magpie-Robin 鹊鸲 Murai-Kampung Biasa

Scientific Name: Copsychus saularis
Photo’s location: Gardens by the Bay 滨海湾花园, Changi Beach Park 樟宜海滩公园
Size: 19-21 cm
Male has glossy blackish head, upperparts and upper breast, white lower breast to vent and broad white wing-stripe. Female resembles male but black plumage replaced by dark grey. Juvenile resembles female but has dark greyish scales at upper breast.
Habitat: Forest edge, gardens, parks, wooded areas and mangroves.
Eating behaviour: Mainly insects and other invertebrates

Nectariniidae Sunbird 太阳鸟科

Brown-throated Sunbird 褐喉食蜜鸟 Kelicap Mayang Kelapa

Scientific Name: Anthreptes malacensis
Alternative Name(s): Plain-throated Sunbird
Photo’s location: Kallang River 加冷河
Size: 14 cm
Male has dull brownish head-sides and throat, glossy dark green upperparts with iridescent purple shoulder patch and yellow lower breast to vent. Female can be separated from other sunbirds by combination of robust shape, relatively straight bill and broken broad pale yellow eyering.
Habitat: Parks, gardens, secondary growth, mangroves, forest and forest edge.
Behaviour/Ecology: Frequents trees as well as low scrubs.

Copper-throated Sunbird 铜喉花蜜鸟 Kelicap Bakau

Scientific Name: Leptocoma calcostetha
Photo’s location: Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve 双溪布洛湿地保护区
Size: 14 cm
Male is relatively long-tailed with distinctive iridescent green crown, shoulder-patch and uppertail-coverts, iridescent copper-red throat, purple flanks and blackish lower breast/belly. Female can be separated from other sunbirds by combination of greyish crown and head-sides, white throat and longish tail with white-tipped outer feathers.
Habitat: Mangroves
Behaviour/Ecology: Keeps mainly to the upper and middle storeys.

Crimson Sunbird 黄腰太阳鸟 Kelicap Merah Biasa
Scientific Name: Aethopyga siparaja
Photo’s location: Windsor Nature Park
Size: 11-13.5 cm
Identification: Male has red head, mantle and upper breast, iridescent dark blue crown and tail, dark malar streak and greyish belly. Female is the dullest sunbird in Singapore with dull olive-coloured upperparts and slightly yellower-tinged underparts.
Habitat: Forest, forest edge, mangroves, secondary growth, gardens and parks.
Eating behaviour: feeding on the nectar of the flowers of the Coconut

Little Spiderhunter 长嘴捕蛛鸟 Kelicap-Jantung Kecil Biasa

Scientific Name: Arachnothera longirostra
Photo’s location: Bukit Timah 武吉知马
Size: 16-16.5 cm
Adult has slaty-grey head with broken whitish eyering and throat, dark moustachial stripe, yellow belly and dull olive upperparts. Juvenile resembles adult but has yellowish-olive tinged throat.
Habitat: Forest and forest edge.
Behaviour/Ecology: Frequents the lower storey and has a partiality for wild bananas and ginger.

Olive-backed Sunbird 黄腹花蜜鸟
Scientific Name: Cinnyris jugularis
Photo’s location: Seletar and Parsir Ris park
Size: around 12 cm long
Identification: olive-colored back side, grayish-brown wings and conspicuous yellow underpart.
Eating behaviour: mainly on nectar extracted from the base of blooms belonging to the Callistemon, Erythrina, Russelia, hibiscus and canna with its curved beak, as well as small insects, including locustids, ants and spiders. It has also been observed stealing from spiders’ webs.

Oriolidae Orioles 黃鸝科

Black-naped oriole 黑枕黄鹂 Kunyit Besar

Scientific Name: Oriolus chinensis
Photo’s location: Gardens by the Bay 滨海湾花园
Size: 24.5-27.5 cm
Golden-yellow medium-sized bird with a broad black band across eye and hindcrown. Iris reddish, bill pink. Most of wings black. Subspecies diffusus told apart from nominate race as tertials and inner secondaries yellow on outer edge rather than black.
Habitat: Widespread. Urban parks, scrub, degraded forests, forests, mangroves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Omnivorous, feeding on a wide range of food such as fruits and insects. Sometimes joins mixed flocks in fruiting trees.

Passeridae 雀科

House Sparrow 家麻雀 Pipit Ubun Kelabu

Scientific Name: Passer domesticus
Photo’s location: Sin Ming Road 新明路
Size: 15 cm
Male has grey crown, whitish head-sides contrasting with black mask, lores, chin, throat and upperbreast, broad chestnut band from eye to nape-sides, greyish-white underparts and dull chestnut mantle with pale brownish and blackish streaks. Female is rather nondescript brownish, with paler supercilium and underparts. Also resembles female weavers but lacks streaks on head and underparts.
Habitat: Town and villages.
Behaviour/Ecology: Roosts communally in buildings.

Phasianidae 雉科

Peafowl 孔雀 Merak

Peacock is male ♂️,Peahen is female ♀️.
Scientific Name: Pavo cristatus
Photo’s location: Sentosa
Size: 100 to 115 cm
The color will usually show in the neck, upper breast, and parts of the tail. They show a more silvery color on the back as they age. Female: Will have a white body with silver gray and white. Chicks: White, usually with a dark spot on the back of the head, neck, or back.
Habitat: Open lowland forests, as well as farms and agricultural fields.
Eating behaviour: Plants, berries, seeds and insects.


Red Junglefowl 红原鸡 Ayam-Hutan Biasa

Scientific Name: Gallus gallus
Photo’s location:
Size: M:65-78 cm, F:41-46 cm
Male has red comb, facial skin and lappets, white ear patch, golden-yellow neck feathers, maroon scapulars and arched dark green tail. Female has drab brown overall plumage, golden-buff neck feathers and blunt dark tail.
Habitat: Forest edge, wooded area, parks and gardens.
Eating behaviour: Feed in open areas early in the morning and evening. The rest of the day it would feed in shaded areas especially under trees.

Psittacidae 鹦鹉科

Blue-and-yellow macaw 蓝黄金刚鹦鹉 Makaw biru-dan-kuning

Scientific Name: Ara ararauna
Alternative Name(s): Plain-throated Sunbird
Photo’s location: Sentosa Butterfly Park & Insect Kingdom
Size: length of 76–86 cm and weigh 0.900–1.5 kg
dull green forecrown with blue upperparts, a white bare face patch with a blackish green chinstrap, and bright yellow on the underparts, underside of tail, and underwing-coverts.
Habitat: forests and woodlands.
Eating behaviour: mainly nuts, seeds, and fruits.

Red-and-green macaw 绿翅金刚鹦鹉Macaw Merah Dan Hijau

Scientific Name: Ara chloropterus
Photo’s location: Sentosa Butterfly Park & Insect Kingdom
Size: 90 to 95 cm
Upper Wing Feathers: The Green-winged Macaw has green upper-wing covert feathers – while the Scarlet has yellow, or yellow and green upper wing feathers.
Habitat: forested, rainforest.
Eating behaviour: seeds, nuts, fruits, flowers and leaves.

Psittaculidae 长尾鹦鹉科

Blue-crowned hanging parrot 蓝顶短尾鹦鹉 Serindit Melayu

Scientific Name: Loriculus galgulus
Photo’s location: Kallang River 加冷河
Size: 12-14.5 cm
Male has bright green overall plumage with dark blue crown patch, reddish breast patch, small yellow patch on mantle just below the nape, yellow band on rump, reddish uppertail-coverts, blackish bill and dark eyes. Female resembles male but is duller and lacks the reddish breast patch. Juvenile resembles female but has dusky-yellowish bill.
Habitat: Forest, forest edge, secondary growth, parks and gardens.
Eating behaviour: nectar, flowers, fruits, buds, nuts and seeds.

Red-breasted Parakeet 绯胸鹦鹉 Bayan Dada Merah

Scientific Name: Psittacula alexandri
Photo’s location: Tampines Eco Green 淡滨尼生态公园
Size: 33-37 cm
Male has overall green plumage with distinct pink breast and belly, grey head, blue uppertail, green tail tip and red upper bill. Female is similar to male but has duller pink underparts and black upper bill. Immature birds have grey head and pink underparts green. Distinguished from both Long-tailed Parakeet and Rose-ringed Parakeet by pink underparts and grey head.
Habitat: Forages in parks and other open woodland habitats.
Eating behaviour: Salmalia, Bombax, Butea, Parkia speciosa and Erythrina variegata, and seeds of Albizia, chestnuts (Castanea), fruits of Ficus, bananas, leaf buds of teak, rice, and grains

Pycnonotidae Bulbul 鹎科

Olive-winged Bulbul 橄榄褐鹎 Merbah Telinga Lorek Melayu

Scientific Name: Pycnonotus plumosus
Photos location:
Size: 20-20.5 cm
Adult has whitish streaks on ear-coverts, brownish upperparts with distinctive yellowish-olive flight feathers, pale brownish underparts, dark red eyes, all-dark bill and dark buffish undertail-coverts. Juvenile resembles adult but has brownish eyes and duller flight feathers.
Habitat: Forest, forest edge, secondary growth, wooded area and mangroves.
Eating behaviour: Feed on low fruiting trees or shrubs.

Yellow-vented Bulbul 白眉黄臀鹎 Merbah Kapur

Scientific Name: Pycnonotus goiavier
Photo’s location: Mount Faber Park 花柏山公园, Gardens by the Bay 滨海湾花园
Size: 20-20.5 cm
Adult has brown upperparts, dark crown and loral stripe, broad white supercilium, white throat, whitish underparts with vague streaks and yellow vent.
Habitat: Mangroves, secondary growth, wooded areas, gardens and parks.
Eating behaviour: Ultimate generalist in terms of food, taking flowers, nectar, fruits, insects, and even carrion

Rallidae 秧鸡科

White-breasted waterhen 白胸苦恶鸟 Ruak-ruak Biasa

Scientific Name: Amaurornis phoenicurus
Photos location: Hampstead Wetlands Park 翰士德湿地公园
Size: 28.5-36 cm
Adult has white face and underparts contrasting with dark slaty-grey upperparts, chestnut undertail-coverts and distinctive yellowish-green bill with red base. Juvenile has browner upperparts, dark spots on ear-coverts and less white over eye.
Habitat: Various kinds of well-vegetated wetlands, pools and streams in open forest, mangroves and adjacent open areas, track, roadsides, gardens and parks.
Behaviour/Ecology: Not shy and frequently forages in the open.

Rhinolophidae 菊头蝠科

Lesser short-nosed fruit bat 小耳短鼻果蝠 Kelelawar buah dengan hidung pendek

Scientific Name: Cynopterus brachyotis
Photo’s location: Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve 双溪布洛湿地保护区
Size: 6.5 cm
Generally, brown with reddish (males) or yellowish (females) collar. Ears and wing bones are edged in white. Head with long muzzle and large eyes. Tail is short and not linked to flight membrane. Has two pairs of lower incisor teeth. Claw on second finger.
Habitat: Roosts in small groups in buildings, trees, under leaves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Nocturnal. Feeds on nectar and fruit.

Scolopacidae Sandpiper 鹬科

Common Sandpiper 矶鹬 Kedidi-Kelicap Biasa

Scientific Name: Actitis hypoleucos
Photo’s location: Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve 双溪布洛湿地保护区
Size: 19-21 cm
Small, short-legged sandpiper; clean white underparts apart from brownish breast patch forming a “bib” (rather than a strip across the breast as in Green Sandpiper). Grey-tailed Tattler is longer-billed, larger, and longer-legged.
Habitat: A wide range of waterbodies –including canals, drains, mudflats, reservoirs, and small ponds.
Eating behaviour: Use involves probing into wet mud or sand with their beaks in search of insects, worms, or crustaceans.

Strigidae 鴟鴞科

Barred Eagle-Owl 马来雕鸮 Burung-Hantu Bertanduk Belang Melayu

Scientific Name: Bubo sumatranus
Photo’s location: Rifle Range Nature Park 射靶场自然公园
Size: 45.5-46.5 cm
Adult has brown-and-buff bars on its upperparts, blackish-and-whitish bars on its underparts, dark eyes and very distinctive outward facing ear tufts. Head and body of juvenile whitish with narrower bars.
Habitat: Forest, forest edge, secondary growth and plantation.
Behaviour/Ecology: Diet includes grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, birds and snakes. Had been observed to prey on Long-tailed Macaque.

Buffy Fish Owl 马来渔鸮 Tumbuk-Ketampi Biasa

Scientific Name: Ketupa ketupu
Alternative Name(s): Brown Wood Owl
Photo’s location: Hampstead Wetlands Park 翰士德湿地公园
Size: 45.5-47 cm
A medium-sized owl with buff facial disc, striking white eyebrows and yellow eyes. Distinct ear tufts. Upperparts are buff based, streaked with darker feathers and have pale rufous edges. Underparts have a buff background with thin, dark streaks. Legs are unfeathered and vary from grey to blackish.
Habitat: Most areas in close proximity to waterways including coastal areas. Can be found in urban canals with large fish.
Behaviour/Ecology: Normally solitary. Most active at dawn and dusk where it can be seen next to waterbodies where it fishes.

Spotted wood owl 点斑林鸮 Carik-Kafan Berbintik Asia

Scientific Name: Strix seloputo
Photo’s location: Pasir Ris Park 白沙公园
Size: 44.5-48 cm
A medium-sized owl with orange facial disc, dark eyes and no ear tufts. Back dark brown, entire upperparts are covered in white spots. Head blackish, barred white. Underparts are white and thickly barred with thin dark brown stripes, breast has rusty wash. Distinguished from Brown Wood Owl by orange facial disc and much darker, bolder barring on underparts.
Habitat: Forest edge, wooded areas and parks.
Behaviour/Ecology: Most common large owl in Singapore after Buffy Fish Owl. Quite urban-adapted and can be found in parks in close proximity to built up areas.

Sturnidae 椋鸟科

Javan Myna 爪哇八哥 Gembala-Kerbau Sawah Jawa

Scientific Name: Acridotheres javanicus
Photo’s location:
Size: 24-25 cm
Dark grey overall with whitish or pale yellow iris and yellow bill. Undertail coverts are white, with yellow legs. Prominent white base to primaries visible in flight. Compared to Common Myna, much greyer in appearance and lacks the bare patch of yellow skin around its eyes.
Habitat: Open habitat, scrub vegetation, forest edge.
Behaviour/Ecology: Omnivorous, forages on ground and sometimes trees, often associated with humans in urban habitats. Roosts in large groups in trees.

Common Myna 家八哥 Gembala-Kerbau Rumah

Scientific Name: Acridotheres tristis
Photo’s location:
Size: 24.5-27 cm
Brownish overall with constrasting black head, yellow bare patch around the eye, yellow bill and legs. Undertail coverts are white, and prominent white base to primaries visible in flight. The similar looking Javan Myna is darker overall and lacks the yellow eye patch.
Habitat: Open country, villages
Behaviour/Ecology: Population in Singapore originated from introduced escaped individuals around the mid 1930s. A massive range expansion of this species occured through the Peninsula in the past century while the locally introduced population was expanding massively. This self-introduced population eventually reached Singapore some time after the 1980s to merge with the local (introduced) population. The current population in Singapore hence has a mixture of introduced and self-introduced ancestry. This species has also been introduced to various places globally and is listed in “100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species” by the IUCN.

The Bali Mynas巴厘岛八哥 Bali myna

Also known as Rothschild’s mynah, Bali starling, or Bali mynah
Scientific Name: Leucopsar rothschildi
Photo’s location: Telok Blangah Crescent 直落布兰雅弯
Size: medium-sized (up to 25 cm (9.8 in) long
The Bali myna is almost entirely white with long head plumes and black wing-tips. Endemic to Bali where it formerly ranged across the north-west third of the island, the species was never very widely distributed.

Wildlife 野生动物

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